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A brand-new year, a brand-new you. Sound familiar? Many of us start the year with high achievements in mind (make straight As, quit the sugar habit, finally run that marathon) only to end up making no progress. But being in college or university can cause a decline in healthy behaviours like physical activity and nutritious eating, research shows. Science has shown us that noble goals and willpower aren’t enough to change our behaviour long-term.
The science of healthy habits
Fortunately, science is also telling us how to develop healthier, more productive habits. “We actually know a great deal about strategies for helping people change behaviour,” says Larry Hershfield, a lecturer on Health Communication at the Dalla Lana School of Public Health at the University of Toronto.“Unfortunately, those who design interventions still rely too heavily on telling people the reasons why they should make a change, instead of identifying the barriers, real and perceived. Once those barriers have been identified, the key is to find ways to make it as easy as possible for people to engage in the desired behaviours.”
The technology of healthy habits
That’s becoming easier all the time. Technology is harnessing behavioural change strategies and delivering them to us in increasingly useful forms. “With the tools we have now, people are able to get a lot more information about not just their own health currently, but also a better sense of their motivations. And that’s because if you measure something, it’s something you can manage,” says Khinlei Myint-U, Product Director for Patient Engagement at Iora Health, a consultancy based in Boston, Massachusetts.
The habits students want most
In a recent Student Health 101 survey, respondents ranked sleep, fitness, and study habits among the top behaviours they’d like to address. “I have a poor system for working towards a goal. I’m trying to make daily goals in order to achieve more,” says Nicole H., a third-year undergraduate at MacEwan University in Alberta. Nicole is on the right track. Like most of us, she could use a realistic system that lowers the barriers. Here’s how you can get on board and have your best semester—with new habits that last through June (at least).
1. Translate your goal into a system or action
Goals represent the person we’d like to be: fit, healthy, productive, and respected, with an enviable credit report. But those goals are both too big and too vague to be helpful. To make progress, we need systems or actions. Here’s the difference:
Goal Get more sleep
Action Use a sleep schedule to increase my average sleep by 15 minutes a night per week until I reach my target of [—] hours per night and [—] hours per week
Goal Reduce my junk food intake to one snack or dish every other day
Action Pack alternative snacks: e.g., fruit, whole-grain crackers, veggies, and granola
Goal Ace my midterm
Action Create a study plan for reviewing the material daily
2. Incorporate these features into your system or action
The features listed in the what works column have been proven to help change our behaviours. Incorporate as many as possible.
|What works||Example 1|
Get more physically fit
Get more organized
|Target one goal at a time||• Improve my physical fitness||• Improve my organization|
|Take a realistic action or approach||• I love running (or at least don’t hate it)||• Calendar and planning tools on laptop synced to phone for easy access|
|Start small||• Incremental training program with realistic goal, e.g., Couch 2 5K running plan||• Make half my deadlines without requesting an extension|
|Join a team||• Find or start a running group||• Recruit friend with the same goal|
|Make a specific plan||• Group runs on Sat & Tues at 8 a.m.; solo runs on Sun & Thurs at 6 p.m.||• Meet Sunday afternoons to review and plan; check schedule three times a day|
|Incorporate cues and rewards||• Group brunch on Sundays; fame and glory via student blog||• Flag upcoming deadlines; for each success, see a movie|
|Tweak your environment||• Keep sneakers and rain jacket by the door||• Baskets to hold papers and books for each class; large desk calendar highlighting due dates|
|Anticipate and plan for obstacles||• Run an hour earlier or in the evening to beat the summer heat||• Two papers due same day; adjust schedule in advance|
3. Consider using a behaviour change tool
We’re seeing an explosion of new digital and online tools designed to help us manage our behaviour. How to choose one? Check out Wellocracy, a site for choosing and using personal health and wellness technologies, from the Center for Connected Health at Partners HealthCare, a major health system based in Massachusetts. Helpful tools provide:
- Immediate feedback
- Motivation (e.g., smiley faces)
- Easy access (e.g., via your phone)
- Updates through the day
“You want to know, ‘I’ve done 6,000 steps! If I just walk home or take the stairs, I might make it to my goal of 10,000 steps today,’” says Khinlei Myint-U.
Popular behaviour change mobile apps
This app helps you set goals, reminds you of them, prompts you to record your progress, and visually presents your new habit streak as it forms, inspiring you not to break it.
Habit Streak appears to have been inspired by Jerry Seinfeld’s approach to productivity: cross off days on a paper calendar. The crosses form a chain that steadily lengthens, inspiring you not break it.
My Life Organized
This time-management system helps you prioritize, automatically generates to-do lists, and alerts you to pending tasks.
Unclear (the company did not respond to our request for info), though the website provides links to favourable reviews.
This incremental running program takes place over nine weeks. It is also available in a 5K-to-10K version.
We found qualitative data only. Which is to say, our friends and favourite bloggers insist it works.
Free for basic version
$1.99 for added features
Low-tech behaviour change tools
Try paper and a pen (remember those?). Snag some templates to get you started, and don’t underestimate their value. Here’s an example: “I draw out what my goal looks like. I set up a visual guide on a calendar to keep myself on track. I set smaller goals and write in the calendar where I expect to have them done by. I keep the calendar somewhere I see it everyday,” says Ryley W., a second-year graduate student at Southern Alberta Institute of Technology.
Online behaviour change tools that work
These free and low-cost online tools and resources are based in decades of research on health-related behaviour and motivation
- Make a Commitment Contract to achieve your weekly target (e.g., “go to the gym twice”). This site is free to join and use. For accountability, you can commit to making an automatic financial donation to a charity you despise any week that you don’t meet your target. You can appoint a friend to monitor your progress and others to cheer you on.
- This tool was designed by Yale University economists and is based in evidence that we do better when stakes are on the table. (That’s stakes, not steaks.) We tend to be motivated by money and reputation, research shows.
- Behavioural economists back up what we kind of knew anyway—we don’t always do what we claim we want to do, but incentives help us do it. Ian Ayres, a co-creator of the site, is the author of Carrots and Sticks: Unlock the Power of Incentives to Get Things Done (Bantam, 2010).
- Cost: This is up to you. It depends on what you pledge and how closely you stick to your plan.
- This program empowers behaviour change by targeting your environment and promoting baby steps. It targets three new habits over five days. You’ll interact by email with Dr. B. J. Fogg, the social scientist who created this tool and directs the Persuasive Tech lab at Stanford University, California. New sessions start each Monday.
- Many years of research lie behind the creator’s behaviour model—which emphasizes motivation, ability, and environmental tweaks—and also the use of mobile phones as a prime platform for behaviour change systems
- Cost: Free
from Prochange Behavior Systems
- This online mobile-compatible program is designed to help students eat healthily, exercise regularly, manage stress, and improve their well-being.
- It’s a self-administered program with questions and feedback individualized to each student. It can be assigned by a professor as part of a course curriculum or group project.
- Web activities are matched to individuals’ readiness to change. Sample activities include workout videos, budget grocery shopping lists and tips, and stress management tools.
- Extensive research supports the Transtheoretical (Stages of Change) behaviour change model, which matches tools and approaches to individuals’ readiness and progress. In tests, students whose classes incorporated liveWell did better on almost all measures (physical activity, diet, stress, and well-being) than students whose classes did not.
Your Best Instagram
“My tip for developing healthy eating habits is to remove some of the temptation. It is really easy to do this if you already have healthy options ready to go. People go for fast food because it is ready instantly. Meal prepping allows you to have the instant meal but way healthier.”
—Jake Murray, fourth-year undergraduate, University of Wyoming
Follow us on Instagram, and don’t forget to use the hashtag #SH101SelfTransformation
Timothy Edgar, PhD, professor, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.
Larry Hershfield, MS. Lecturer, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Ontario.
Khinlei Myint-U, MBA, product director for patient engagement, Iora Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
Ashraf, N., Karlan, D., & Yin, W. (2006). Tying Odysseus to the mast: Evidence from a commitment savings product in the Philippines. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 121(2), 635–672.
Ayres, I. (2010). Carrots and Sticks: Unlock the Power of Incentives to Get Things Done. New York City, New York: Bantam.
Crombie, A., Ilich, J. Z., Dulton, G. R., Panton, L. B., et al. (2009). The freshman weight gain phenomenon revisited. Nutritional Review, 67(2), 83–94.
Cugelman, B. (2012). Why digital behaviour change interventions will transform public health. Ontario Health Promotion E-Bulletin, 754. Retrieved from http://ohpe.ca/node/13291
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Dzewaltowski, D. A., Estabrooks, P. A., & Glasgow, R. E. (2004). The future of physical activity behavior change research: What is needed to improve translation of research into health promotion practice? Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 32(2), 57–63.
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Kang, J., Ciecierski, C. G., Malin, E. L., Carroll, A. J., et al. (2014). A latent class analysis of cancer risk behaviors among US college students. Preventive Medicine, 64, 121–125.
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Radogna, M. (2014). Stop hitting snooze: How to make the most of your morning. Student Health 101, 9(6). Retrieved from http://readsh101.com/l/library.html?id=23edd36d
Student Health 101 surveys, June 2014 and November 2016.